Cargo is typically defined as freight that is transported by airplane, ship, or automotive methods. Sometimes freight is moved by railroad, but this method is generally less common. In most cases, shipments consist of boxes or containers filled with material or products being transported from one company to another, however, combined together, person-to-person freight accounts for a substantial portion of worldwide shipping. Most freight shipments are domestic, but because of globalization within business markets, international cargo shipments are also common. For reasons relating to security and product management, shipping containers are often scanned and sampled.
One of the main considerations when shipping large amounts of freight from one company to another is to have a system in place to be sure the cargo being shipped is exactly what was ordered. This is especially true with international shipments, where freight charges can be expensive and the time involved in returning unsatisfactory product is often excessive. Most businesses use various methods of freight sampling to avoid these problems.
Freight sampling typically involves having shipping containers or boxes checked at various points during shipment. These checks are usually performed on random containers, and the results are reported to both the shipper and the receiving party. Larger companies may have their own personnel taking samples, but in many cases, the work is outsourced to private contractors who specialize in the field.